“Cholera is endemic in South Sudan and historically, outbreaks have occurred along major commercial routes and rivers in the dry season as well as during the rainy season,” said Joseph Wamala, an epidemiologist at the World Health Organization (WHO), in a news release from the agency’s Africa office. Earlier this week, WHO received 500,000 doses of oral cholera vaccine and is working with South Sudan’s Ministry of Health and partners to carry out a vaccination campaign from 28 July to 3 August in four selected counties – Tonj East, Kapoeta South, Kapoeta North and Kapoeta East.“South Sudan has suffered from several major cholera outbreaks in the last four years. Following other successful oral cholera vaccine campaigns, WHO and partners can make a real difference in controlling the outbreak in Tonj and Kapoeta states and in other parts of the country,” Mr. Wamala said. Along with the use of the vaccine, South Sudan is implementing the integrated approach to control cholera, such as improving access to patient care, surveillance, social mobilization, water, sanitation and hygiene.As a result, cholera transmission in Bor, Mingkaman, Duk, Ayod, Bentiu, Leer, Aburoc, Malakal Town, and several other areas has been controlled.Food insecurity is putting people at increased risk of starvation and malnutrition, which in turn will further the risk that cholera outbreak in South Sudan will spread. Drought has also led to the drying of water points in some regions leading to the population using contaminated water from the remaining few unprotected points leading to repeated outbreaks of cholera and other water-borne diseases.
MineARC states that it has recently seen a rise in the number of mines worldwide implementing its patented Permanent Hard Rock Refuge Chamber technology. In the past few months seven Permanent Chambers have been installed in mines across Australia, Turkey and the Philippines, in new and existing excavations and often doubling as lunch rooms. MineARC Permanent Refuge technology is capable of sustaining over 150 occupants in a single confined space. Most recently, Argyle Diamond Mines Australia installed two 80 person lunch room conversions at their underground sites in northern Western Australia. In northeastern Turkey, Inmet Mining implemented life support systems in two 30 person lunch rooms at Cayeli Bakir mine site.The MineARC Permanent Hard Rock Chamber features “the most advanced technology of its kind” according to the company and has been designed to clean the air of harmful gases and toxins from within confined spaces. The Permanent Refuge Chamber offers a practical alternative to standard ‘portable’ refuge units. Unlike portable refuge chambers, permanent chambers can offer a host of variable factors which require careful consideration before a suitable refuge solution can be implemented. The most critical aspect for designing a permanent refuge chamber is the volume of the chamber versus the number of occupants. This ratio is critical for determining a number of factors; the ‘dead air’ space available, compressed air flow regulation, the size of the scrubber, and the amount of metabolic heat generated for sizing a cooling and battery backup system. All of these factors are calculated by MineARC using proprietary models. To perform the technical engineering evaluation MineARC requires and uses the following information: volume of refuge station; number of persons; entrapment duration (36 hours is MineARC standard); bulk head material; bulk head thickness; maximum external temperature and surrounding rock type.