During the conjunctive SUNDIAL/ATLAS 1/GEM campaign period of March 28–29, 1992, a set of comprehensive data has been collected both from space and from ground. The assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure is used to derive the large-scale high-latitude ionospheric conductivity, convection, and other related quantities, by combining the various data sets. The period was characterized by several moderate substorm activities. Variations of different ionospheric electrodynamic fields are examined for one substorm interval. The cross-polar-cap potential drop, Joule heating, and field-aligned current are all enhanced during the expansion phase of substorms. The most dramatic changes of these fields are found to be associated with the development of the substorm electrojet in the post midnight region. Variations of global electrodynamic quantities for this 2-day period have revealed a good correlation with the auroral electrojet (AE) index. In this study we have calculated the AE index from ground magnetic perturbations observed by 63 stations located between 55° and 76° magnetic latitudes north and south, which is larger than the standard AE index by about 28% on the average over these 2 days. Different energy dissipation channels have also been estimated. On the average over the 2 days, the total globally integrated Joule heating rate is about 102 GW and the total globally integrated auroral energy precipitation rate is about 52 GW. Using an empirical formula, the ring current energy injection rate is estimated to be 125 GW for a decay time of 3.5 hours, and 85 GW for a decay time of 20 hours. We also find an energy-coupling efficiency of 3% between the solar wind and the magnetosphere for a southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) condition.
Impact craters contain ecosystems that are often very different from the ecosystems that surround them. On Earth over 150 impact craters have been identified in a wide diversity of biomes. All natural events that can cause localized disruption of ecosystems have quite distinct patterns of recovery. Impact events are unique in that they are the only extraterrestrial mechanism capable of disrupting an ecosystem locally in space and time. Thus, elucidating the chronological sequence of change at the sites of impacts is of ecological interest. In this synthetic review we use the existing literature, coupled with our own observations at the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada to consider the patterns of biological recovery at the site of impact craters and the ecological characteristics of impact craters. Three phases of recovery are suggested. The Phase of Thermal Biology, a phase associated with the localized, ephemeral thermal anomaly generated by an impact event. The Phase of Impact Succession and Climax, a phase marked by multiple primary and secondary succession events both in the aquatic realm (impact crater-lakes) and terrestrial realm (colonization of paleolacustrine deposits and impact-generated substrata) that are followed by periods of climax ecology. In the case of large-scale impact events (> 10(4) Mt), this latter phase may also be influenced by successional changes in the global environment. Finally, during the Phase of Ecological Assimilation, the disappearance of the surface geological expression of an impact structure results in a concomitant loss of ecological distinctiveness. In extreme cases, the impact structure is buried. Impact succession displays similarities and differences to succession following other agents of ecological disturbance, particularly volcanism.
Joint inversion of isochron and flow line data from the flanks of the extinct West Scotia Ridge spreading center yields five reconstruction rotations for times between the inception of spreading prior to chron C8 (26.5 Ma), and extinction around chron C3A (6.6–5.9 Ma). When they are placed in a regional plate circuit, the rotations predict plate motions consistent with known tectonic events at the margins of the Scotia Sea: Oligocene extension in Powell Basin; Miocene convergence in Tierra del Fuego and at the North Scotia Ridge; and Miocene transpression at the Shackleton Fracture Zone. The inversion results are consistent with a spreading history involving only two plates, at rates similar to those between the enclosing South America and Antarctica plates after chron C5C (16.7 Ma), but that were faster beforehand. The spreading rate drop accompanies inception of the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading center, which may therefore have assumed the role of the West Scotia Ridge in accommodating eastward motion of the trench at the eastern boundary of the Scotia Sea. This interpretation is most easily incorporated into a model in which the basins in the central parts of the Scotia Sea had already formed by chron C8, contrary to some widely accepted interpretations, and which has significant implications for paleoceanography and paleobiogeography.
Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation are rapidly increasing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and reducing the pH of the oceans. This study shows that predicted near-future levels of ocean acidification have significant negative effects on early larval development of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (Gould, 1850). CO2 was added to seawater to produce pH levels set at 8.1 (control), 7.8, and 7.6 (actual pH values were 8.11, 7.81, and 7.64, respectively). These treatments represent present-day surface ocean pH, as well as upper (Delta pH approximate to -0.3) and lower (Delta pH approximate to -0.5) pH predictions for the surface oceans in 2100. With decreasing pH, survival of S. glomerata larvae decreased, and growth and development were retarded. Larval survival decreased by 43% at pH 7.8 and by 72% at pH 7.6. Antero-posterior measurement (APM) was reduced by 6.3% at pH 7.8 and 8.7% at pH 7.6 and dorso-ventral measurement (DVM) was reduced by 5.1% at pH 7.8 and 7.5% at pH 7.6. The percentage of empty shells remaining from dead larvae decreased by 16% at pH 7.8 and by 90% at pH 7.6 indicating that the majority of empty shells dissolved within 7 days at pH 7.6. Scanning election microscope images of 8-day-old larvae show abnormalities on the shell surface at low pH suggesting (1) problems with shell deposition, (2) retarded periostracum formation, and/or (3) increased shell dissolution. Larval life-history stages are considered particularly susceptible to climate change, and this study shows that S. glomerata larvae are sensitive to a high-CO2 world and are, specifically, negatively affected by exposure to pH conditions predicted for the world’s oceans for the year 2010.
During the austral summer 2011/2012 atmospheric nitrous acid was investigated for the second time at the Concordia site (75°06′ S, 123°33′ E) located on the East Antarctic plateau by deploying a long path absorption photometer (LOPAP). Hourly mixing ratios of HONO measured in December 2011/January 2012 (35 ± 5.0 pptv) were similar to those measured in December 2010/January 2011 (30.4 ± 3.5 pptv). The large value of the HONO mixing ratio at the remote Concordia site suggests a local source of HONO in addition to weak production from oxidation of NO by the OH radical. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface snow removed from Concordia can produce gas phase HONO at mixing ratios half that of NOx mixing ratio produced in the same experiment at typical temperatures encountered at Concordia in summer. Using these lab data and the emission flux of NOx from snow estimated from the vertical gradient of atmospheric concentrations measured during the campaign, a mean diurnal HONO snow emission ranging between 0.5 and 0.8 × 109 molecules cm−2 s−1 is calculated. Model calculations indicate that, in addition to around 1.2 pptv of HONO produced by the NO oxidation, these HONO snow emissions can only explain 6.5 to 10.5 pptv of HONO in the atmosphere at Concordia. To explain the difference between observed and simulated HONO mixing ratios, tests were done both in the field and at lab to explore the possibility that the presence of HNO4 had biased the measurements of HONO.
Projections of sea-level rise contributions from West Antarctica’s dynamically thinning ice streams contain high uncertainty because some of the key processes involved are extremely challenging to observe. An especially poorly observed parameter is sub-decadal stability of ice-stream beds. Only two previous studies have made repeated geophysical measurements of ice-stream beds at the same locations in different years, but both studies were limited in spatial extent. Here, we present the results from repeat radar measurements of the bed of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, conducted 3–6 years apart, along a cumulative ~ 60 km of profiles. Analysis of the correlation of bed picks between repeat surveys show that 90 % of the ice-stream bed displays no significant change despite the glacier increasing in speed by up to 40 % over the last decade. We attribute the negligible detection of morphological change at the bed of Pine Island Glacier to the ubiquitous presence of a deforming till layer, wherein sediment transport is in steady state, such that sediment is transported along the basal interface without inducing morphological change to the radar-sounded bed. Significant change was only detected in one 500 m section of the bed where a change in bed morphology occurs with a difference in vertical amplitude of 3–5 m. Given the precision of our measurements, the maximum possible erosion rate that could go undetected along our profiles is 500 mm a-1, far exceeding erosion rates reported for glacial settings from proglacial sediment yields, but substantially below subglacial erosion rates of 1000 mm a-1 previously reported from repeat geophysical surveys in West Antarctica.
The first low‐temperature thermochronological data from Thurston Island, West Antarctica, provide insights into the poorly constrained thermo‐tectonic evolution of the paleo‐Pacific margin of Gondwana since the Late Paleozoic. Here we present the first apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U‐Th‐Sm)/He (AHe) data from Carboniferous to mid‐Cretaceous (meta‐) igneous rocks from the Thurston Island area. Thermal history modeling of AFT dates of 145–92 Ma and AHe dates of 112–71 Ma, in combination with kinematic indicators, geological information and thermobarometrical measurements, indicate a complex thermal history with at least six episodes of cooling and reheating. Thermal history models are interpreted to reflect Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic tectonic uplift of pre‐Jurassic arc sequences, prior to the formation of an extensional Jurassic–Early Cretaceous back‐arc basin up to 4.5 km deep, which was deepened during intrusion and rapid exhumation of rocks of the Late Jurassic granite suite. Overall Early to mid‐Cretaceous exhumation and basin inversion coincided with an episode of intensive magmatism and crustal thickening and was followed by exhumation during formation of the Zealandia‐West Antarctica rift and continental break‐up. Final exhumation since the Oligocene was likely triggered by activity of the West Antarctic rift system and by glacial erosion.
This study quantifies differences among four widely used atmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA5, JRA-55, MERRA-2, and CSFR) in their representation of the dynamical changes induced by severe springtime polar stratospheric ozone depletion in the Southern Hemisphere during 1980–2001. The intercomparison is undertaken as part of the SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP). The dynamical changes associated with the ozone hole are examined by investigating the eddy heat and momentum fluxes and wave forcing. The reanalyses are generally in good agreement in their representation of the expected strengthening of the lower stratospheric polar vortex during the austral spring-summer season, as well as the descent of anomalously strong winds to the surface during summer and the subsequent poleward displacement and intensification of the polar front jet. Differences in the trends in zonal wind are generally small compared to the mean trends. The exception is CSFR, which shows greater disagreement compared to the other three reanalysis datasets, with stronger westerly winds in the lower stratosphere in spring and a larger poleward displacement of the tropospheric westerly jet in summer. Although our results suggest a high degree of consistency across the four reanalysis datasets in the representation of the dynamical changes associated with the ozone hole, there are larger differences in the wave forcing and eddy propagation changes compared to the similarities in the circulation trends. There is a large amount of disagreement in CFSR wave forcing/propagation trends compared to the other three reanalyses, while the best agreement is found between ERA5 and JRA-55. The underlying causes of these differences are consistent with the wind response being more constrained by the assimilation of observations compared to the wave forcing, which is more dependent on the model-based forecasts that can differ between reanalyses. Looking forward, these findings give us confidence that reanalysis datasets can be used to assess changes associated with the ongoing recovery of stratospheric ozone.
Mike Traina Written by September 25, 2018 /Sports News – Local Badgers Unable To Stop Artichoke Aerial Attack FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailThe 3rd ranked Snow Badgers ran into a buzz saw on Saturday as they were upset by the 8th ranked Scottsdale Artichokes 44-28 in the WSFL opener for both teams. Wisconsin transfer quarterback Kare Lyles led the Artichoke offense, throwing for 375 yards and 6 touchdowns. Badger linebacker John Ofahengaue led Snow with 4 tackles and two interceptions, one for a 77 yard return for a touchdown.The Badger offense was led by wide receiver Derek Wright who caught 7 passes for 104 yards and a touchdown, while running back Jaylen Warren rushed for 131 yards. Linebacker Sherwin Lavaka also made 8 tackles, while defensive ends Parker Workman and Isaac Fotu recorded sacks. At 3-1, Snow will try to regroup this Saturday as they host the Phoenix Bears for a 7:00 pm kick-off at Robert Stoddard Field at Badger Stadium on the Snow campus in Ephraim.