R1.8-bn sugar fuel plant for KZN

first_imgIn South Africa sugarcane is mostly grown in KwaZulu-Natal, with some farming operations in the Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces. (Image: South African Sugar Association)Nicky RehbockFind out more about using MediaClubSouthAfrica.com materialPrivate investors have injected R1.8-billion (US$200 000) into building a new sugar-processing facility in the rural area of Makhathini, in the far north of KwaZulu-Natal province, Engineering News reports.The project, which is a joint initiative by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), local municipalities and sugar growers, aims to produce ethanol and other sugar by-products from raw sugarcane.Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an alternative fuel that can be blended with petrol to produce fuel with a higher octane rating and lower harmful emissions. It is produced by fermenting materials that contain starch or sugar.DTI director for agroprocessing Imamaleng Mothebe said, “The biggest advantage of the project is that it would justify investment in much needed critical infrastructure within one of the least developed regions of the country.“Once completed, the improved infrastructure in the area should generate more investments in areas other than just sugar. The role of the DTI is to facilitate investment into Makhathini.“The investment into the project is 100% private-sector funded through development financing institutions, as well as some members of the sugar industry and other private investors,” she added.Mothebe revealed that state-owned power utility Eskom, which generates 95% of the electricity used in South Africa, was one of the stakeholders in the Makhathini project.“There is work between Eskom, the Industrial Development Corporation and the Central Energy Fund around issues of cogeneration and ethanol.”DTI director-general Tshediso Matona said the project will play an important role in aiding rural development.“For South Africa, it is important that an appropriate policy environment be created that would establish real markets for renewable energy products,” he said.“This will not only improve our overall carbon footprint, but will unlock substantial further investments in the sugar sector.”South African Sugar Association chairperson Martin Mohale said the markets for sugarcane-based renewable energy will create major opportunities for the South African sugar industry.The Makhathini sugar-processing facility will be commissioned in 2011 and is estimated to create 1 800 direct jobs.SA sugar industryThe South African sugar sector comprises approximately 38 200 registered sugarcane growers farming predominantly in KwaZulu-Natal, with some operations in the provinces of the Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga.The industry produces an estimated average of 2.3-million tons of sugar per season.About 60% of this sugar is marketed in the Southern African Customs Union (Sacu), which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. The remainder is exported to markets elsewhere in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.Based on revenue generated through sugar sales in the Sacu region as well as world market exports, the South African sugar industry is responsible for generating an estimated average income of R7-billion ($700 000) a year.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Email Nicky Rehbock at nickyr@mediaclubsouthafrica.com Related articlesGreen charcoal to save forestsSA delves into carbon storage 2009 – the Year of Natural FibresUseful linksSouth African Sugar AssociationDepartment of Trade and Industry Engineering Newslast_img read more

Open Thread: Is the iPad a Flop?

first_imgfrederic lardinois See also: ReadWriteWeb’s complete coverage and analysis of the iPad on our iPad topic page. Related Posts Tags:#Apple#Open Thread#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market So far, the reaction to Apple’s iPad has been very mixed. For some, the absence of a camera is a deal breaker, while others bemoan that Apple still doesn’t allow multitasking on its iPhone OS and that Safari still doesn’t support Flash. Others, however, are excited about the iPad’s potential as an e-book reader and gaming device. Here at ReadWriteWeb, opinions are still mixed as well. Reactions among our writers range from advising people to wait for the iPad 2.0 to giddy excitement about the prospect of a better couch-surfing device.Tech Pundits: Mixed ReactionsAll of the tech pundits who attended the launch event and actually used the device for a few minutes were impressed by the iPad’s speed. John Gruber, who also wrote one of the most balanced evaluations of the iPad launch so far, went as far as to argue that Apple’s A4 processor is the iPad’s most revolutionary feature. Walt Mossberg is cautiously optimistic about the iPad’s potential. Mossberg says that the software “looked impressive,” but also notes that the virtual keyboard “may be a liability.” In the New York Times, David Pogue writes that just calling the iPad a big iPod touch doesn’t do it justice, and that the iPad “as an e-book reader is a no-brainer.” Pogue also cautions critics that it’s too early to draw any conclusions. Nobody, after all, has really used the device yet and we haven’t seen any iPad-only apps that really push the device to its limits.Stephen Fry puts the launch into a historical context and notes that quite a few pundits expected Apple’s iPhone to be a flop as well. MG Siegler, on the other hand, looks forward and says that holding the iPad is “like holding the future” (if you are already used to the iPod touch and iPhone).A Paradigm Shift?Nicholas Carr and Slate’s Farhad Manjoo take a slightly different angle. Both argue that the iPad will represent a paradigm shift in how we look at our computers. Manjoo lauds the iPad’s interface and ease of use and thinks that using the the iPhone represents a breakthrough in doing away with the old multi-window desktop metaphor. Carr writes that the success of the iPad is not a sure bet, but also argues that “whether it finds mainstream success or not, there’s no going back; we’ve entered a new era of computing, in which media and software have merged in the Internet cloud.”Indeed, just like the iPhone changed our expectations of what mobile phones should be able to do, the iPad might just change our expectations of how laptops should work and what they should look like.What do You Think? Let us Know!What do you think? Is the iPad just an oversized and overhyped iPod touch, or is there more to it? Is it a Kindle killer and an awesome gaming device that will replace your Kindle and iPod touch? Does it represent a paradigm shift in how we will look at our computers in the future? Are you going to wait for iPad 2.0? Or are you waiting to give it a try at the Apple store before you render your final judgment?Let us know your opinion in the comments. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hostinglast_img read more

Know the Rules and Regulations of Traveling with Batteries

first_imgThe Two Types of BatteriesEssentially, there are two types of batteries that a filmmaker will use: alkaline and lithium-ion. Alkaline batteries are your standard AA or AAA batteries. Usually, these batteries power your smaller accessories, like wireless microphones, boom mics, etc. Then, there are lithium-ion batteries. These are the bigger, block-style batteries that power your cameras. These batteries are much bigger and more cumbersome than alkaline batteries. Limitations on AlkalineImage via mariva2017.The TSA doesn’t restrict how many alkaline (or “dry”) batteries you can travel with. You can either check alkaline batteries, or you can carry them on. So, if you need AA, AAA, C, or D batteries on your next shoot, you can travel with as many as you can carry.Limitations on LithiumThere have been limitations for these batteries for some time; however, with the issue of exploding lithium batteries in phones over the last few years, the rules have become a little more strict. Knowing how to navigate these restrictions will make traveling with batteries much easier. The general rule of thumb is to try to stick to under 100Wh for all of your larger lithium batteries. When you stay under this number, you can carry on as many lithium batteries as you need to power your camera and accessories. From the TSALithium batteries with 100 watt hours or less may be carried in a device, in either carry-on or checked bags. Loose lithium batteries are prohibited in checked bags.However, if you wish to carry on batteries that are larger than 100Wh, you can. You’re just limited to two, and they can’t exceed 160Wh. Lithium batteries with more than 100 watt hours may be allowed in carry-on bags with airline approval, but are limited to two spare batteries per passenger. Loose lithium batteries are prohibited in checked bags.The OptionsFortunately, battery and power manufactures — for cinema applications — are very aware of these TSA restrictions. As a result, they design and develop power and battery solutions that specifically address these limitations. For example, Anton Bauer has the Titan series of batteries, specifically created for these applications. They neatly fit within the TSA’s regulation amounts for both 100Wh and 160Wh limitations. Image via Anton Bauer.By understanding the TSA rules and regulations of traveling with batteries, you can eliminate much of the unnecessary headache and confusion. As a result, you can focus on what you do best, creating content. Cover image via Janaka Dharmasena.Looking for more filmmaking tips and tricks?Production Tips: Getting Started with High-Output Lights on SetBuilding A Low Budget Handheld Rig For The Blackmagic Pocket Cinema Camera 4KFollow Fill: The Simple Solution to Lighting a Difficult Scene7 DIY Filmmaking Projects You Can Complete in a WeekendHow Video Editors Can Increase Production Value Using Song Stems In this write-up, we take a look at the rules and regulations of flying with batteries for your next filmmaking excursion.One of the most exciting aspects of being a filmmaker is discovering where your work takes you. However, these adventures often involve managing and travel with all the batteries you need to accomplish your work and power your equipment. However, by knowing and understanding the TSA regulations of flying with batteries, you can eliminate much, if not all, of that headache and confusion.last_img read more

HC stay on teacher’s suspension welcomed

first_imgCivil rights groups in Rajasthan have welcomed the High Court’s intervention in the suspension of a teacher of Jai Narain Vyas University in Jodhpur in connection with a complaint lodged against Prof. Nivedita Menon of Jawaharlal Nehru University, who was accused of making some “anti-national” remarks during a conference last month.‘Panel order not obeyed’Justice Dinesh Mehta at the High Court’s principal seat in Jodhpur on Monday stayed the JNV University’s order of February 16 placing Rajshree Ranawat of the English Department under suspension on charges of not obeying orders of a fact-finding committee by failing to appear before it. Dr. Ranawat had asked the committee to provide her security for deposing in view of the threats issued by a group of students.The single-judge Bench stayed the university syndicate’s decision and issued notices to the Vice-Chancellor and the Registrar, seeking their response by the next date of hearing on April 17. “Until further orders, [the] effect and operation of the order dated February 16, 2017, placing the petitioner under suspension will remain stayed,” said the court order. During the hearing, the court expressed surprise that the university had suspended a teacher simply because of her invitation to a particular person to address a conference.The university had set up a three-member panel to conduct an internal inquiry into the episode. Some students and Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad activists had forced the university to shut down for a day while protesting against Prof. Menon’s lecture.The People’s Union for Civil Liberties said it was “extremely pleased” with the High Court’s intervention in the matter. PUCL State president Kavita Srivastava and general secretary Anant Bhatnagar pledged their support to Dr. Ranawat in her struggle for justice and said they would intensify the struggle for academic freedom in all universities and educational institutions.‘Anti-national remarks’The JNV University Registrar and some others had lodged police complaints against Prof. Menon and Dr. Ranawat, alleging that Prof. Menon had made anti-national remarks on Kashmir and the Indian Army at a conference on “History Reconstrued through Literature: Nation, Identity, Culture” organised by Dr. Ranawat.last_img read more

Marsh Habour Healthcare Centre Opens in Abaco

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:#magneticmedianews, #marshharbourcentreopens Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppBahamas, May 4, 2017 – Abaco Islands – Government officials, on April 19, opened the Marsh Harbour Healthcare Centre in Abaco, stating that it is a long-awaited boost to the island and the Christie administration’s National Health Insurance plans.Like the Child and Adolescent and Robert Smith (CARS) Complex that was commissioned last year, the Marsh Harbour Healthcare Centre has a tortured history, one of missed deadlines and claims of shoddy workmanship, all without any clear accountability.Construction of the healthcare centre began under the former Ingraham administration and when the Christie administration came to power, it spent $1m renovating the facility, Prime Minister Perry Christie said.“The floors had to be ripped up and lots of work had to be done,” added Minister for Grand Bahama Dr Michael Darville, who oversees aspects of NHI’s implementation.Now, the facility is state of the art. At 33,000 square feet, it will be a place where dental and lab services will be provided. Abaco currently has about three nurses and one doctor, Dr Darville said. By December, the island will have 16 nurses, five doctors, a radiologist and two lab technicians.Charlene Bain, the Director of Public Health, added that the overall health staff on the island will grow from the 20 that it has now to 70 by September. The facility boasts an administrative wing, pharmacy and a morgue where autopsies will be performed.Mr. Christie has revealed that the Ministry of Finance has also dedicated funding for a mini-hospital to be constructed in Palmetto Point, Eleuthera.#magneticmedianews#marshharbourcentreopenslast_img read more

Digital photography begins its next chapter with radical changes

first_img Walmart Share your voice Why we need 16 cameras on a smartphone $849 Apple $589 30 See All $812 Stuart Palley, a professional wildfire photographer here standing in the Angeles National Forest, believes mirrorless cameras will replace conventional SLRs. Stuart Palley Digital photography has changed a lot over the past two decades, with clunky DSLRs giving way to sleek smartphones. Over the next 10 years, expect a similar evolution as the science behind the art changes. Much of the technology in use today represents the breakthroughs of the first generation of digital cameras. Film was stripped away and digital image sensors took its place, but much of the rest of the camera — things like lenses, shutters, autofocus systems — often stayed largely the same. Manufacturers centered camera designs on the single, fleeting snap of the shutter. Now two big trends are reshaping our expectations of digital photography. Computational photography, which uses computing technology to improve photos, vaults over the limits of smartphone camera hardware to produce impressive shots. And the “mirrorless” movement, which drops hardware once necessary for film and elevates the image sensor’s importance, overhauls the mechanics of traditional cameras. Old assumptions about optics are being reconsidered — or discarded — as computer processing takes over. “Cameras will change more in the next 10 years than in the past 10,” said Lau Nørgaard, vice president of research and development at Phase One, a Danish company that makes ultra-premium 151-megapixel medium-format cameras costing $52,000 apiece. See It Sep 1 • iPhone 11, Apple Watch 5 and more: The final rumors Best Buy The changes will matter to all of us, not simply professional photographers on fashion shoots. New technology will mean better everyday snapshots and new creative possibilities for enthusiasts. Everything — selfies, landscapes and family portraits — will simply look better. Computational photography For much of camera history, bigger meant better. A larger frame of film could capture more image detail, but that meant a bigger camera body. Bigger lenses offered more detail, but that meant more weight. Computational photography, which runs on powerful processors, will change that paradigm. And that’s good news because most of us rely on our phones for taking pictures. Perhaps some of the most advanced computational photography available now is in Google’s Pixel 3 phone, which arrived in October. Here’s some of what it can do: Combine up to nine frames into a single shot with a technology called HDR+ that captures details in both dark shadows and bright highlights. Monitor how much your hands shake the photo so it can snap shots during fleeting moments of stillness. Compare multiple shots of photos to find the ones where people aren’t blinking or suffering from awkward facial expressions. Brighten the parts of the image where it detects humans and slightly smooths skin to make subjects look better. Zoom in better by capturing more data about the scene from multiple shots and and using artificial intelligence technology that predicts how best to expand an image. Photograph in dim conditions by merging multiple shots through a technology called Night Sight. Isaac Reynolds, Google’s Pixel camera product manager, says his company’s product underscores a fundamental change in what we think cameras are. Much of the Pixel 3’s performance and features come not from the lens and sensor but from software running on the phone’s chip that processes and combines multiple frames into one photo. With a computational photography feature called Night Sight, Google's $900 Pixel 3 smartphone can take a photo that challenges a shot from a $4,000 Canon 5D Mark IV SLR.Enlarge ImageWith a computational photography feature called Night Sight, Google’s $900 Pixel 3 smartphone can take a photo that challenges a shot from a $4,000 Canon 5D Mark IV SLR, below. The Canon’s larger sensor outperforms the phone’s, but the phone combines several shots to reduce noise and improve color. Stephen Shankland/CNET “You’re seeing a redefinition of what a camera is,” Reynolds said. “The Pixel 3 is one of the most software-based cameras in the world.” Seeing in 3D It’s all pretty radical compared with a shutter flipping open for a moment so photons can change the chemistry of film. And it’s only the beginning. Two years ago, the iPhone 7 started using two cameras side by side, which lets the phone judge just how far away each element of the scene is. The phone’s computing hardware then constructs a 3D-infused layer of information called a “depth map” in which each pixel of a photo holds both color and spatial information. Initially, Apple used the technology to re-create a style used in portrait photography that requires expensive camera lenses. Those lenses could shoot a shallow depth of field that focused on the subject but left the background an undistracting blur. Apple used software to do the blurring. The depth map has more to offer. With Lightroom, Adobe’s widely used photo editing and cataloging software, you now can adjust an iPhone photo based on that 3D information. For example, you can selectively brighten shadowed subjects in the foreground while leaving a bright background unchanged. That’s a manual process photo enthusiasts will appreciate, but it should help smartphones take photos automatically, said Google distinguished engineer Marc Levoy, who coined the term “computational photography” in 2004 when he was at Stanford University. A camera that could generate reliable depth maps means a camera app could fix problems with brightness and color balance so photos look more natural. “We have just begun to scratch the surface with what computational photography and AI have done to improve the basic single-press picture taking,” Levoy said. This photo, shot with Adobe Lightroom on an iPhone XS Max, contains "depth map" information about how far away elements of the scene are. That lets you easily select foreground areas for brightening.This photo, shot with Adobe Lightroom on an iPhone XS Max, contains “depth map” information about how far away elements of the scene are. That lets you easily select foreground areas for brightening. Stephen Shankland/CNET Goodbye, SLRs Generations of photographers grew up using SLRs — short for single lens reflex. It’s named after its reflex mirror that bounces light from the lens into a viewfinder so you can compose a shot. When you take the photo, the mirror flips out of the way and the shutter opens to let light reach the film. The first serious digital cameras — DSLRs — replaced the film with an image sensor and memory card. But they left almost everything else the same — the mirror and viewfinder, the autofocus system, the mount for interchangeable lenses. Now mirrorless cameras are changing that setup, dumping the mirror and optical viewfinder. You compose your shots using a screen. It might be the screen on the back of the camera or a smaller electronic viewfinder you use like a film-era photographer. With mirrorless cameras, the sensor is recording nonstop. It’s essentially taking a video but throwing away most of the data, except when you push a button and pluck out a single frame. Indeed, this video-centric design makes mirrorless cameras adept at video. What’s so great about mirrorless designs? They offer smaller, lighter camera bodies that can shoot photos silently; use autofocus across the frame, not just in the central portion; make it easier to compose shots at night; shoot fast bursts of photos; and preview shots more accurately through an electronic viewfinder so you can do better dialing in exposure, focus and aperture. “There’s none of this dropping the camera down, looking at the image and seeing if it’s too bright or dark,” said wildlife photographer David Shaw, who sold his Canon gear to move to Panasonic’s Lumix G9 camera, which is smaller and a quarter the weight. “I can see it all as I’m shooting.” Canon and Nikon embrace mirrorless Mirrorless cameras have been gaining traction for years, but here’s what changed in 2018: Canon and Nikon. The two DSLR heavy hitters, still the top dogs of the traditional photography market, started selling high-end mirrorless models. Nikon’s Z7 and Z6 and Canon’s EOS R. Following Sony’s lead, they come with large “full-frame” sensors that are best at capturing color and light data. Nikon and Canon aren’t phasing out their traditional SLRs, but their mirrorless models will be peers. Meanwhile, mirrorless pioneer Panasonic joined in with plans for two full-frame models debuting in 2019. Nikon's $3,400 Z7 looks similar to traditional DSLR cameras but dumps the internal mirror in a move to a more purely digital design.Nikon’s $3,400 Z7 looks similar to traditional DSLR cameras but dumps the internal mirror in a move to a more purely digital design. Nikon Mirrorless is the future, says Stuart Palley, a Newport Beach, California, professional photographer whose specialty in wildfire photography appears in his new book Terra Flamma. “DSLRs are going the way of medium formats and Speed Graphics,” Palley said, referring to film-era camera designs that now are mostly footnotes in history. He’s begun shooting with a Nikon Z7 and likes how it’s lighter than his Nikon D850 DSLR. “It’s so liberating carrying around less,” Palley said. The Z7, like the Sony and Panasonic full-frame mirrorless models, also can move its image sensor to compensate for shaky hands — something utterly impossible with film. “I can shoot a handheld image of the Milky Way now. It’s crazy,” Palley said. Outpaced by phone innovation? The traditional camera makers are adapting. But will they adapt fast enough? There’s nothing in principle that stops them from using the same computational photography techniques that smartphone makers do, but so far that’s been a secondary priority. “The camera guys have to look at what’s going on with handsets and computational photography and see what’s’ adaptable to traditional cameras,” said Ed Lee, a Keypoint Intelligence analyst. He expects the pace of change in photography technology to increase. The phone makers are moving fast, but Phase One’s Nørgaard doesn’t see any problem embracing their technology. Indeed, the company has begun embedding its Capture One editing software directly into the camera body. “The cellphones make really good images from a small camera,” Nørgaard said. “We can do the same on the other end, where we start with an absolutely fantastic image. The software approach will push that even further.” But smartphones have gobbled up the point-and-shoot camera market and each year pick up more high-end camera abilities. Phones that sell by the tens of millions offer a huge incentive for chipmakers like Qualcomm to push photography technology. The company’s next-gen mobile chip, the Snapdragon 855, adds all kinds of photo smarts, like the ability to detect, identify and track objects in a scene, to create depth maps and to counteract shaky hands. And that’s just next year’s chip, said P.J. Jacobowitz, Qualcomm’s senior marketing manager for camera and computer vision. “In this book, there are about 50 chapters,” he said of digital photography tech. “We are in chapter two.” CNET’s Holiday Gift Guide: The place to find the best tech gifts for 2018. Cambridge Analytica: Everything you need to know about Facebook’s data mining scandal. Aug 31 • Best places to sell your used electronics in 2019 See It Review • Pixel 3 review: The best Android phone of 2018 Sep 1 • 7 phones with the best battery life: iPhone XR, Note 10 Plus and more Mentioned Above Google Pixel 3 (64GB, not pink)center_img Now playing: Watch this: 2:02 News • Unlocked Google Pixel 3: Just $499.99 with this exclusive code Preview • Pixel 3 and 3 XL: Google’s nicest Pixel might lack that killer feature $799 Tags See it CNET may get a commission from retail offers. Aug 31 • iPhone XR vs. iPhone 8 Plus: Which iPhone should you buy? Mobile Photography Cameras Sprint See It Comments • reading • Digital photography begins its next chapter with radical changes Google Pixel 3 Qualcomm Canon Google Nikon Panasonic Sony Applelast_img read more

Budget 2016 FM Arun Jaitleys nine pillars to tranform India

first_imgPrime Minister Narendra Modi’s key ministers are in “transformation mode”, so to speak. First, it was Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu, who talked last Thursday while presenting the Railway Budget for FY2017 of seven missions to transform the world’s fourth-largest rail network.On Monday, it was Finance Minister Arun Jaitley’s turn, as he laid out the broad contours for Budget 2016-17, which he said were meant to “transform India” next fiscal. The all-encompassing nine pillars covered almost everything under the sun â€” from agriculture, social sector spending, education and infra spending, to financial sector reforms, tax reforms and fiscal discipline. AgricultureAllocation for farmers’ welfare was set at Rs 35,984 crore. A long-term irrigation fund will be set up with an initial corpus of Rs 20,000 crore. In case of crop loss, farmers will be compensated with nominal premium and the highest ever compensation under the PM’s Crop Insurance Scheme (PM Fasal Bima Yojana).Rural thrust Allocation to the PM’s Rural Roads Scheme (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana) will be increased to Rs 19,000 crore. Grants to gram panchayats will see a quantum jump of 228 percent in accordance with FFC recommendations. A 100 villages will be electrified by May 1, 2018. In totality, Rs 87,765 crore will be spent on rural development in FY2017.Social-sector spending A new healthcare scheme will provide health cover of up to Rs 1 lakh per family. Senior citizens will get additional healthcare cover of up to Rs 30,000. Besides, 300 generic drug stores will be opened.Education, skills, and job creation A new scheme of Rs 500 crore has been launched to promote ventures by ST/SC communities. Ten educational institutions in public and private sector each will be made world-class. A digital literacy scheme will be launched to cover rural households. The main objective will be to skill 1 core youths under the PM Kaushal-Vikas Yojana.Infrastructure and investmentThe total infrastructre outlay for FY2016-17 now stands at Rs 2,21,246 crore. For development of highways, Rs 55,000 crore has been allocated.Financial sector reformsThe biggest reform announced in the budget is the amendment to the Reserve Bank of India Act to “provide statutory basis for a Monetary Policy Framework and a Monetary Policy Committee through the Finance Bill 2016.” Besides, Jaitley also proposed to set up  a Financial Data Management Centre under the Financial Stability Development Council to “facilitate integrated data aggregation and analysis in the financial sector.”Tax reforms for easier complianceThe ceiling of income tax rebate under Section 87A for taxpayers up to Rs 5 lakh annual income will be raised to Rs 5,000 from Rs 2,000. This would benefit approximately 1 crore tax payers. Deduction under HRA will be raised from Rs 20,000 to Rs 60,000 per annum. The other two pillars as articulated by Jaitley include fiscal discipline and ease of doing business.last_img read more